• 2018-07
  • 2018-10
  • 2018-11
  • It has been noted however


    It has been noted, however, that while the process model focuses mainly on implementation success (or failure) of particular emotion regulation strategies, adaptive emotion regulation actually involves a broader repertoire of skills, including flexible strategy selection (e.g. Bonanno and Burton, 2013). This has led to the recent development of an ‘extended process model’ (Gross, 2014; Sheppes et al., 2015, see Fig. 1b). This posits that emotion regulation occurs in three stages: (1) Identification, in which an emotional state is identified and the decision over whether or not to regulate this is made; (2) Selection, in which an appropriate regulatory strategy is selected and (3) Implementation, in which the strategy is implemented (corresponding to the original process model). Each stage involves perception of the state of the world, valuation as to whether this is positive or negative, and then action based on the valuation stage. For example, at the Identification stage, an individual might perceive that they are experiencing a negative emotion, evaluate that this exceeds a given threshold of negative affect and that regulation is required, and therefore decide to take action to select an appropriate strategy. This then feeds into the Selection stage, where the full range of regulatory strategies are perceived and evaluated, and appropriate action is taken. When taken in relation to models of adolescent buy GDC-0879 development, the extended process model raises several questions. At each stage, does the perception–valuation–action cycle unfold in the same way as in adults, or are there developmental differences? It might be posited, for example, that if social approval is particularly rewarding (Blakemore and Mills, 2014), a hedonic state elicited in the presence of peers may not trigger the valuation of a need to regulate in the Identification stage. Equally, however, adolescents might be hypothesised to show immaturities at the Selection stage. A wide range of regulatory strategies have been identified (see Table 2 for a list of explicit/deliberate strategies), but adolescents may not have access to the same range as adults, either because they are unaware of particular strategies, because they have not had sufficient practice in using them, or because certain strategies require advanced executive function (Hofmann et al., 2012) and/or social cognition (Gross, 2014) skills, which continue to develop during adolescence. If these skills are not fully developed, adolescents may not be able to select from the range of strategies available to adults, or may select a strategy that they are unable to implement effectively. Executive function development may also impact the ability to switch flexibly from one strategy to another during Selection, if the original strategy proves ineffective. The role of executive function and social cognition skills may also play an important role in the Implementation stage. For example, the strategy of reappraisal (cognitively changing one\'s interpretation of an emotion-eliciting situation) requires that executive functions such as working memory and verbal fluency are in place (Hofmann et al., 2012), but perhaps more importantly that individuals are able to take another person\'s perspective (Gross, 2014). If a teacher is short with a student, a classic reappraisal response would be to think that perhaps the teacher was just having a bad day. However, there is considerable evidence that the ability to take another person\'s perspective undergoes protracted development at both behavioural (e.g. Dumontheil et al., 2010) and neural (e.g. Pfeifer and Blakemore, 2012) levels. The following sections will review evidence for the continued development of emotion regulatory processes and their neural bases during adolescence, including the contribution of component executive and social skills where applicable. To date, the vast majority of research has focused on the Implementation stage, i.e. participants are given a strategy and the effectiveness of implementation is measured. However, where possible, reference to Identification and Selection will be made.