• 2018-07
  • 2018-10
  • 2018-11
  • As the third component of the conceptual framework the desig


    As the third component of the conceptual framework, the design studio is the medium in which cognitive activities occur (Onal, 2010). Interaction between learning and teaching is another factor of these cognitive activities. This interaction supports the awareness and understanding of cognitive activities that have a relationship with creative ideas. In fact, the design studio can be regarded as a cognitive learning process or as a cognitive function of the mind, and, inevitably, the role of the cognitive content of design and design thinking can be described as the basis of architectural design education.
    Conceptual framework of the study
    Model of the study The students’ cultural schema of and the creative design process are related to each other, because they GW5074 are informed by the design studio. These components are related based on Melvin Rhodes’ 4P׳s of creativity approach that was developed in the 1961/1987 article, “An analysis of creativity,” (Rhodes, 1961) which identified these exact same four “P׳s” of creativity. This approach has helped in finding all of the creative dimensions through the questions relevant to creativity: What is created (product)?; How is creativity achieved (the process)?; Who is creative?/What makes someone creative (the person)?; and What conditions (historical/every day) are conducive to creativity (the press)? In the design studio, the medium, person, product, and process form an indivisible unified system through the relevant literature and the 4P׳s approach. Three of these dimensions are directly related, while one dimension is a consequence of the other three. The fourth dimension, the press, is interpreted as the manner in which the other three interact. For this compliance, a research model (Table 3) was developed based on the conceptual framework of the study and the two main research tasks, namely, the person–product–process and the press analyses. The research techniques utilized in these analyses are a survey, face-to-face interview, concurrent protocol analysis (concurrent protocols are delivered simultaneously as the participant performs the task and are ideally unprompted by the experimenter (Trickett and Trafton, 2009), and cognitive–behavioral plan analysis.
    Empirical research
    Results and discussion
    Conclusion The second part of the study presents a model utilized to analyse a designer׳s cultural schema components through a concurrent protocol analysis and the cognitive–behavioral plan analysis. After investigating the creative cognitive approaches to the design process, including Rhodes’ “4P׳s” of creativity, O’Neill and Shallcross’ “five stages of the sensational thinking model” (5R׳s), and the Geneplore model of Smith et al. (1995), the model of this study was developed based on Rhodes’ 4P׳s of creativity approach. In this technique, two analysis systems were prepared for investigating the person–product–process and press relation based on the cognitive–behavioral theory approaches.
    Introduction The national qualification framework (NQF) of many countries requires a certain level of knowledge and complexity of skills for academic degrees. In Bahrain, the NQF level for a bachelor׳s degree is 7, whereas the notion hours-to-credit ratio is 10:1, according to the National Authority of Qualifications and Quality Assurance for Education and Training (NAQQAET, 2015). In Qatar, the notion hours-to-credit ratio is 15:1 (Grainger et al., 2012). Credit is based on the English credit system, whereas notion hours is the total time (in hours) required by a student to complete all learning activities (NAQQAET, 2015), including lectures, studio and lab works, assignments, and assessments. The total notion hours is derived from the student workload. Thus, students who enroll in four to five courses every semester have a maximum workload of approximately 18 credit hours. Student workload is computed as (18×4×10:15)=720, which is equivalent to 1080h/semester or an average of 900h for every 18 credit hours. Student workload is further distributed over 14 weeks at 5 working days each, which is approximately 12.8h/day. In the same manner, the average student workload for a design course with 6 credit hours is (6 credits hours ×4 credit points ×12.5 average notion ratio)/(14 weeks/semester) =21.5h/week.