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Discussion Is it possible to predict the social structure of space using space syntax techniques? The answer appears to be positive. The first proposal, with the straight linear pathway, did not show significant changes in the visual integration analysis through Depthmap. The straight line and symmetric layout did not generate a variety of visual fields. In the second proposal, the visual integration analysis showed an emergent warm color, which appeared as a spot resembling a main node connected to the western side of the pathway through the designed park. Salingaros (1999) stated that spatial network appears to have structure and a strong integration with the global space at this portion of landscape space. Conway and Bourne (2013) suggested that this result could inform the designer to insert an attractive visual component, e.g., colorful flower composition or a piece of sculpture. Bell (2004) suggested that the height of this c-kit inhibitor should not exceed eye level to avoid the obstruction of the visual field. In the third proposal, visual integration analysis showed an emergent warm color, which appeared like a main node along the pathway through the designed park. The spatial network appeared to have structure and strong integration at this space. This finding agrees with that of Bell (2004) given that the circular arrangement of trees created a degree of enclosure defining the space. This condition could motivate the designer to add a visual element, e.g., a water fountain below eye level to maximize and emphasize this visual integration. The results of the intelligibility analysis showed that the third proposal integrated a grid-planting pattern with a central curved space and thus provided a stronger correlation between visual stability (clustering coefficient) and connectivity compared with the first proposal, which included a rectangular array of plantation. The second proposal showed inadequate correlation. This result revealed an area within the second proposal that showed a high degree of connectivity within the space (Figure 5a and b). This outcome may guide designers in making use of this advantage and adding some design elements within this area to enhance design esthetics. Furthermore, the third proposal created a space system with a potential for copresence and interaction at the central space. The two other proposals did not show sufficient clustering potential.
Introduction Currently building technology and sustainable design are considered as fundamental to the growing field of contemporary architecture. Practicing architects have a challenging responsibility to design buildings that are environmentally sustainable with the change in the global concern regarding the use of energy and resources (Wines and Jodidio, 2000; Cox, 2009; Friedman, 2012). This new responsibility has prompted a sensible shift in trend from a biased preference of eye-catching, institutionalized building forms to more organic, humble, yet energy-efficient vernacular forms. Additionally, the local forms of construction capitalize on the users׳ knowledge of how buildings can be effectively designed to promote cultural conservation and traditional wisdom (Oliver, 2003; Rapoport, 2005). A number of practitioners are also inspired by building traditions, given that the local vernacular forms have proven to be energy efficient and “green,” honed by local resources, geography, and climate (Fathy and Shearer, 1986; Curtis, 1996; Lewis, 2014). However, given the diversity of vernacular architecture in the global context, the techniques or technology-based research on vernacular architecture remains surprisingly limited beyond performance-based examples. This limitation stems from multiple factors, one being fundamentally hinged on the conventional notions of “traditional” and “modern” in the discourse of architecture.