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  • gingerol This issue of Frontiers presents some

    2018-11-12

    This issue of “Frontiers” presents some Italian works in the field of architectural and archaeological conservation and of museography. In itself, this gingerol issue underlines and enhances the increasing importance of a productive cultural exchange in this field between China and Italy, two countries with extensive cultures that have long since been expected to come into contact.
    Architecture and such things: restoration works at Trajan׳s Market
    International documents for preserving and restoring cultural heritage Preservation and restoration charters are documents conceived in international agreement conferences and predominantly aim to establish guidelines for interventions on historical monuments. In particular, the charters on conserving cultural heritage established guidelines for key laws promulgated by many different countries and for all architects. Therefore, each international charter involves “abstract or general” principles that must be reconciled with the characteristics of ancient sites and interpreted by the sensibility of the designers. Meanwhile, the primary charters generally aim to prevent complete reconstructions, encourage anastylosis, respect the past without erasing any traditional style, and design novel interventions for promoting new technologies and materials while avoiding drastic changes to any historical artifact. In this essay, two treaties are noted because of their importance in the modern conception of cultural heritage. The first is the “Charter of Venice” (1964), which is the leading international agreement on preservation through which the urban environment and landscape are given cultural and historical value for the first time. The second is the “European Charter for the Historic Heritage,” which is the so-called Charter of Amsterdam (1975). This document extended the area of interest of preservation from the single monument to the urban context and throughout the entire fabric of the city. In this event, the term “integrated restoration” was introduced, indicating that historical knowledge, conservation, cultural behavior, and social benefits are interconnected. Such a rationale updated the concept of “monument,” which was considered an international asset. Accordingly, the resources for restoring monuments can be acquired from the international community, not only from the state in which ancient buildings or archeological sites are situated.
    Place, context Architecture is the making of a room; an assembly of rooms. The light is the light of that room. Thoughts exchanged by one and another are not the same in one room as in another. A street is a room; a community room by agreement. Its character from intersection to intersection changes and may be regarded as a number of rooms (Latour, 1986). The end or the beginning of a restoration project is the inclusion of buildings in the urban context, a Latin word composed of cum, which denotes together, and texto, which means fabric. Therefore, when referring to architecture, the word context does not only indicate a set of things around buildings (i.e., the sum of objects or materials, volumes, and colors), but also the relationship that exists between them. Context also includes “intangible” relationships, such as the memory and history of a specific urban context that transform geometrical spaces in palimpsest. What is “place”? For an architect, place essentially refers to a 3D physical environment and pertains to the intersection of different morphological systems, including slope, surface, rock and water, and earth and sky. An architect identifies the geometrical sets that organize what the human senses perceive, such as an axis, alignment, and shape. Subsequently, pedestrian paths, vehicular roads, squares, and buildings are constructed. Place is also determined as equally real in spite of it being deemed as tangible or intangible. This particular rationale of place may be defined as the product of emotions and memories that the observer or designer acknowledges to a certain space due to its history, culture, symbols, or by analogy with other known sites.