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  • In yogurts and other dairy products a liquid mineral suspens

    2018-11-12

    In yogurts and other dairy products, a liquid mineral suspension can be used and the addition of hydrocolloid or starch would result in the stabilization of these suspensions by reducing sedimentation of minerals. All around the world, especially in Europe, where health claims on products are regulated by the new EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) health claim regulation, Mg and Zn offer various options for new fortified product concepts. By raising the awareness of these minerals and their various beneficial effects on human health, they should gain importance in dairy products as well as calcium and other nutritional ingredients. As technological problem will increase with higher fortification levels of mineral, trimagnesium and zinc citrate will be able to prove their superior application in dairy products [49].
    Fortification with fiber There is no fiber in yogurt and dairy products. Fiber is a component of the c-myc inhibitor of fruits, grains, seeds and vegetables [50,51]. Fiber of various sources is added to dairy products because of its water-holding capacity and its ability to increase the production yield, reduce the lipid retention, improve textural properties and structure, and reduce caloric content by acting as a bulking agent [52]. Consumption of products containing high fiber may prevent or decrease hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity [53], gastrointestinal disorders [54], coronary heart disease [55,56], diabetes [57,58], and cancer [59]. Fortifying yogurt or dairy products with fiber is of increasing interest to create functional foods with health benefits and improve their functionality. Fortifying yogurt with dietary fiber would complement its healthy properties. The maximum acceptable amount of date fiber in fortified yogurt with potential beneficial health effects is 3%. Many researchers evaluated the effect of dietary fiber on dairy products and yogurt quality. The addition of 1.32% oat fiber improved the body and texture of unsweetened yogurt and decreased the overall flavor quality [60].
    Fortification with fruits and vegetables Plants produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites in order to better adapt to the environmental conditions, and protect themselves from microbial attacks and resist both biotic and abiotic stresses. Of these compounds, phenolics have received significant attention in recent years due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-clotting power which has been correlated with a declined risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer development [61–63]. The major dietary source of phenolic compounds is fruit [64]. It has been suggested that fruit juices [65], powders [66] and extracts have the potential to be used as functional ingredients in the food industry including dairy sector. But, seasonal production of some fruits and vegetables, economic restrictions, and high requirement of fruits in the fresh market, forced researchers to look for alternative strategies for the bio-production of natural compounds similar to anthocyanin and phenolic acids [67]. Plant callus/cell cultures were shown to possess a promising potential for the production of mainly anthocyanin and other phenolic in grapes [68], carrots [69] and cherries [67]. These in vitro cultures exhibit several advantages over fresh fruit extracts such as possibility of continuous production of natural compounds [67], large scale production depending on specific needs [70], lower cost and opportunity of manipulating the direction of anthocyanin\'s or other phenolic biosynthesis [71,72]. One of the well-known fermented dairy products is yogurt; despite its nutritional characteristics and importance in human diet, it is not being considered as a major source of phenolic compounds [8]. The amount of phenolics in dairy products is extremely restricted, which may be because of cattle feed containing high level of phenolics, contamination of food production equipment with sanitizing agents, and bacterial decomposition of proteins in milk. Hence, plant-based additives had been applied to improve the phenolic content of yogurt [8]. In another study, yogurt was enriched with acidified ethanol extracts of four different grape varieties and grape callus which were regarded as functional ingredients [73].