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  • br Materials and methods br

    2018-11-09


    Materials and methods
    Results and discussion
    Conclusion Our previous publications have established a five month-long stable C-FBN-C on a microelectrical array as a C-FBN-biosensor [10,11] and characterized it pharmacologically by investigating its responsiveness to Mg, TTX, and VER ([12], in review). This paper presents further pharmacological characterization of the biosensor using AP5 and MUS. The following conclusions can be made: 1) The C-FBN-biosensor responds to AP5 and MUS with a predictable dose-dependent inhibition that is similar to the patterns of rodent counterparts with ED50 of 2.3μM and 0.25μM, respectively; 2) the C-FBN-biosensor shows intrasensor reproducibility and can be sensitized when it is exposed to the same agent again after a few days; 3) the C-FBN-biosensor demonstrates long-term stability and reusability; and 4) the C-FBN-biosensor may be used as an alternative biosensor to rodent counterparts in the shared sensing domains of NMDA receptor and GABAA receptor.
    Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health through SC COBRE (P20RR021949), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31070847 and 31370956), the Strategic New Industry Development Special Foundation of Shenzhen (No. JCYJ20130402172114948), and Guangdong Provincial Department of Science and Technology, China (2011B050400011).
    Introduction Recently, due to the advancement of technology and for an extra degree of freedom photonic crystal fiber has drawn the attention of the researchers. Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) or holey fibers (HFs) or microstructure optical fiber contains a microscopic array of air thymidylate synthase that run through the entire fiber and formulates a lower index cladding on a silica background [1]. According to the guiding mechanism, PCF can be divided into two categories. One is photonic bandgap fiber (PBG) [2,3] where the light is guided by photonic bandgap principle and another is index guiding (IG) PCF [4,5] where light can be guided through low index core by photonic crystal reflection cladding. Although the first fabricated PCF was hexagonal [6] but for encouraging technology, a lot of design flexibility is now possible. So to achieve better-guiding properties octagonal [7], decagonal [8], honeycomb cladding [9], circular [10] and hybrid [11] shaped PCF is designed nowadays. So far, high sensitivity [12], high birefringence [13], ultra-flattened dispersion [14], high nonlinear effect [15] can be accomplished by designing PCF because the advanced manufacturing technology allows PCF to tune by varying the air hole diameters and pitch. PCFs can be used for optical communication [16], nonlinear optics [17], high power technology [18], spectroscopy [19], supercontinuum generation [20], sensing application like - gas sensing [21] and chemical sensing [7] for its unique properties. Microstructure core and cladding were first introduced by Cordeiro et al. [22] which shows that this type of PCF helps to increase energy into the holes which contain gas. An index-guiding PCF (IG-PCF) based gas sensor was proposed [23] which show a relative sensitivity of 13.23% and confinement loss of 3.77×10. In 2015, M. Morshed et al. proposed a modified photonic crystal fiber [24] of [25] for gas sensing which shows better sensitivity and lowers confinement loss. The proposed PCF contains microstructure core instead of hollow core (of prior PCF) which improves the relative sensitivity of 42.27% with a lower confinement loss of 4.78×10. Both the structures [23,25] demonstrate that by increasing the diameters of air holes placed in inner ring results in high relative sensitivity, whereas by increasing the air holes placed in outer ring results degraded confinement loss. A novel design of PCF was proposed in [26] where both core and cladding contains elliptical holes formed horizontally and vertically which shows high relative sensitivity, high birefringence and lower confinement loss simultaneously. The proposed PCF was used as a liquid analyte (water, ethanol and benzene) sensor.