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  • This review has several limitations First we only

    2018-11-07

    This review has several limitations. First, we only focused on qualitative research studies and did not include quantitative evaluation studies. Quantitative studies are necessary to establish efficacy and effectiveness. At the same time, qualitative evaluation provides valuable policy-relevant data on potential harms, implications for equity and human rights, and feasibility/acceptability. Second, this Myriocin meta-review used data collected from three systematic reviews focused on linkage, adherence, and retention, respectively. At the same time, each of these search algorithms, protocols, and analysis plans were standardized in order to facilitate comparisons across reviews. Third, our search algorithms identified fewer qualitative evaluation studies focused on pregnant women, adolescents, and children. This is consistent with the results of quantitative reviews (Govindasamy et al., 2012; Govindasamy et al., 2014; Barnighausen et al., 2011; Mills et al., 2006; Ortego et al., 2011; Okeke et al., 2014) and likely reflects fewer interventions targeting these important subsets of people living with HIV. Fourth, many of the studies we identified were from Africa. The extent to which this influences review findings depends on the scope of the review finding. For example, our finding about men\'s engagement in HIV services was limited to Africa. However, the review finding about food insecurity was identified in a range of studies from around the world. Finally, our search only covers data through February 2015 and there is growing momentum to examine public health HIV interventions. Given how rapidly this field is expanding, we anticipate that further evidence will become available. Our data have implications for HIV policy and research. From a policy perspective, this systematic review identified several strategies for tailoring interventions to enhance HIV service delivery at multiple points within the continuum of care. From a research perspective, this qualitative evidence review demonstrates the value of robust qualitative research studies alongside quantitative evaluations. Qualitative evaluations provide detailed observations and perspectives that complement and extend quantitative evaluations. Implementation research on how best to integrate HIV services within larger medical and social systems is increasingly important as stand-alone HIV services are removed and HIV becomes operationally and clinically a chronic disease. Given the high burden of HIV among young people around the world, more implementation research among children and adolescents would be desirable given the additional challenges in these age groups (UNAIDS, 2014). Persistent social and structural factors contribute to disparities in HIV outcomes across the continuum of care, shaping the context of HIV service delivery among important subpopulations. Although altering the delivery of health services for vulnerable groups living with HIV in low and middle-income countries is no small task, these types of approaches will likely be necessary in order to achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets (UNAIDS, 2014) and ensure an equitable HIV response.
    Competing Interests
    Financial Disclosure This project was supported by the World Health Organization and the US NIH (NIAID 1R01AI114310-01, 1D43TW009532-02). The funder had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and writing of the report.
    Authors\' Contributions
    Acknowledgements
    Introduction Acute respiratory viral (ARV) infections are among the most common reasons for patient visits in primary and acute care settings (Hong et al., 2004; Johnstone et al., 2008). Many viruses cause such acute respiratory illness including human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. These viruses can be associated with a range of clinical severity from asymptomatic to mild, self-limited illness to respiratory failure and death. Influenza alone causes 25 to 50 million infections annually in the USA, resulting in several hundred thousand hospitalizations and 20–40,000 deaths (Thompson et al., 2010).