Calculated daily intake of fluoride from
Calculated daily intake of fluoride from water, green leafy vegetables, food grains, cow milk and cooked rice in high fluorotic areas of the study shows 3–5 times higher fluoride than 2mg/d that was estimated as worldwide average for fluoride intake in children and adolescent. For children and adolescents during their developmental age, fluoride daily threshold of 2mg was recommended by the World Health Organization .
Cow milk is a suitable alternative for human milk; fluoride content of samples of cow milk analyzed in this study found to range from 0.04mg/L to 0.15mg/L. Fluoride exposure level through milk infants in low fluorotic areas and high fluorotic areas is found to be 2.1% and 2.4%, respectively. Even in high fluorotic area cow milk samples do not have excess fluoride.
The WHO  stated that “The most serious effect is the skeletal accumulation of fluoride from long-term excessive exposure to fluoride and its effect on non-neoplastic bone disease specifically, skeletal fluorosis and bone fractures”. There is clear evidence from India and China that skeletal fluorosis and an increasing risk of bone fracture occurred at total intake of 14mg fluoride/d and evidence suggestive of an increasing risk of bone effect at a total intake of about 6mg fluoride/d . From the results obtained in this study and previous studies, it apoptosis is evident that after nearly 30 years of experience, the defluoridation system does not provide a safe and dependable supply of domestic water . As a defluoridation plant using activated alumina was installed in one of the villages of the study area in the year 2001 with the financial support from Tamil Nadu water and drainage (TWAD) board, a government institution concerned with provision of safe drinking water is not properly utilized by the people of the area. Another drawback is that the plant is not properly monitored and necessary periodical regeneration of the adsorbent is not carried out.
Adults in high fluorotic areas were exposed to 2 times higher fluoride intake per day than the recommended level of 4mg/d through all the selected diet sources analyzed. Fluoride levels of all selected diet sources analyzed in medium and high fluorotic areas are nearly 2 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the low fluorotic area diet. The drinking water fluoride level has significant influence on fluorosis prevalence in the study area as it contributes around 66% of the total fluoride intake per day. If water used for drinking or food processing has fluoride level more than 0.65mg/L, it enhances the daily total fluoride intake more than the standard limit of 4mg/d for normal adults recommended by the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry [49,50]. Our findings regarding fluoride levels of food grains and green leafy vegetables show that foods grown in high fluorotic areas have significantly higher fluoride than those grown in low fluorotic area.
Acknowledgment We would like to thank the University Grants Commission, Government of India for the financial support [F. No. 39-806/2010(SR)].
Introduction Maillard reactions refer to a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar such as glucose and fructose in the presence of heat. These reactions between the carbonyl group of sugar and the nucleophilic amino group of amino acid create a wide range of flavor, odor, and/or noticeable browning color compounds in foods. Some compounds such as the melanoidins, the brown polymers formed via Maillard reaction during coffee roasting, are highly desirable. Besides of favorable aroma and flavor components, several unpleasant compounds such as furan may also be produced from Maillard reactions, with detectable furan levels up to 65g/kg formed in coffee during roasting . The average level of furan was approximately 170ng/g based on a FDA screening of 340 food samples . Furan (C4H4O) has been classified as a possible animal and human carcinogen by many international agencies including the International Agency for Research on Cancer  and has been placed on the list of potential carcinogens by the US Department of Health and Human Service  and the National Toxicology Program . The occurrence of furan in a large number and variety of commercially thermal treated foods has brought intensive international attention [2,6].